Monuments-peeping into the past

Monuments are great tellers of History. Volumes they speak on Culture, tradition and socio-political scenes in days of yore. The protected monuments come under
the administration of Archeology Department of Kerala . Here follows a list of the monuments


Thiruvananthapuram


 

PADMANABHAPURAM

Padmanabhapuram Palace is an ancient historical monument representing the indigenous architectural features especially the in the traditional style of southern Kerala. The palace is situated in the centre of the Padmanabhapuram fort with an area of 186 acres amidst hills, dales and rivers. All the buildings in it are elegantly designed and display a simplicity of architectural style characterised by pointed gables, dormer windows and long corridors. The earliest of structures was built about 1335 AD. The most noteworthy edifices are the Entrace Hall (Poomukham), the Council Chamber (Mantrasala), the Natakasala (Theatre Hall), the Pooja Mandapa (place of worship), the Saraswathy shrine and above all the Uppirikka Malika (storeyed building) which contain well preserved mural paintings.

In the southern side of the main complex of Padmanabhapuram Palace but outside the compound wall there is a small palace. It is actually a traditional building in the style of a Nalukettu. This wonderful architectural elegance shows the beauty of our domestic architecture. Now a Heritage museum is housed in this building.

Padmanabhapuram was the capital of erstwhile Travancore State till 1792. Now it is in Thakkala village Kanyakumari district in Tamilnadu State. But the Palace and adjacent area of 6.5 acres of land is placed under the control of the Govt. of Kerala .

PANDAVANPARA

Pandavanpara is monument standing in gigantic manner, protected by a kind of granite pagoda like natural rock facing west, covers an area of about 96 cents occuring between two huge boulders on a hillock sufficiently spacious to accommodate nearly fifty people. This peculiar shelter has engravings of deep kind, unique by itself on its walls and especially the lower portion at the entrance. The engravings at the entrance are mostly floral while on the interior some human figures could be seen in the hunting posture with bow and arrow. This particular characteristic of engraving and polishing in the gate would show that htis work is executed most probably by theNeolithic People.

KOLLAM

KOTTUKAL ROCK CUT TEMPLE


The Kottukal rock cut temple represents an out standing and typical example for the Rock cut Temple style of Kerala. It has two cells on either side with Sivalingas in each with a projection carrying the figure of Ganapathy at the centre. The mukhamandapa of the large cell has two pillars carved in rock. The wall of the mukhamandapa carries a Ganapathy figure. There is a monolithic Nandi in each cave. One of the riches of the sanctum santorum carries the figure of Hanuman near the monolithic Nandi, probably intended to recollect the Nandi-vanara episode in the Ramayana. It is dated to 8-9th Centuries A.D. Kerala government declared it as a protected monument in 1966. The temple is located at Ittiva village in Kottarakkara Taluk.

MADAN KAVU

Mangadu is a megalithic site situated 8 kms. north-east of Kollam town. The site is located very near to 'Madan kavu', a small traditional temple. This urn burial site is demarcated on the surface with uneven blocks of laterite with an area of approximately 10 x 10 meters. The stone blocks form three circles and are in slanting position.

CHENNAMATH TEMPLE


This old Siva temple has circular vimana. It is ekathala alpavimana. It is of sandhara type. Two armed dwarapalakas in stone work is seen here on the flanks of the main door entrance. The Balipita is on the open outside the prakara door on the eastern side. It is a unitary temple but with an interesting array of Kostha devadas on the wall Gavakshas. The windows are set with in the pilastered divisions of the wall. It is an early medieval Kerala type . The temple is situated at Meenad village in Kollam district.

SUSPENSION BRIDGE PUNALUR

The suspension bridge spanning the Kallada River in Punalur is the only one of its kind in south India and it is 400 ft. long. As this bridge erected in 1877 is found to be not strong enough to cope with the mounting flow of pasenger and goods traffic, a new concrete bridge is constructed near by. The Suspension Bridge is now of archaeological interest only. Its construction was commenced in 1871-72 and completed in 1877-78 AD. Located at Punalur village in Pathanapuram Taluk.

PATHANAMTHITTA

ROCK CUT TEMPLE, THRIKKAKUDY

It is the oldest cave temple in Kerala. It belongs to the latter half of the 8th centruy AD if not earlier as suggested by its close resemblance to later Pallava work. The cave is 19 feet 8 inches broad and 8 feet 6 inches high. Two pillars, 8 feet 8 inches in height, divide the breadth of the cave into three openings, two of which are 5 feet broad the other being only 4 feet 8 inches. The central shrine is a cylindrical rock cut linga. The entrance is facing west.

Inside the square garbhagriha, Sivalinga is fixed on rectangle peeta. Two dwarapalaka figures are seen. One of them is of a local chieftain and the other carrying 'gada', On the north and south walls of the ardha mandapa there is a figure of Chathurbhuja Ganapathi and a 'Bhikshu' respectively. Location: Thiruvalla Taluk in Pathanamthitta District. ALAPPUZHA

NARASIMHA TEMPLE, CHATHANKULANGARA

This beautiful temple Contains many wooden sculptures which are considered to be of 14th century AD. Temple structure is Chaturasra alpavimana. Nirandhara type, although having a passage around the sanctum. Above the Granite adhistana the outer wall is ornamented with 21 panels of different wooden sculptures of deities and puranic scenes. Dwarapalakas on both sides. Balipita is well outside the inner scheme. Dhwajastambha is in the open. The temple is situated at ChengannoorTaluk in Alappuzha district.

BUDDHA IMAGE AT KRISHNAPURAM PALACE

This Buddha Image is of 96 cm. height. It is in yogasana posture. Jvala, and the upper cloth on the left shoulder which spread over the chest with many foldings is very clear. It is datable to 9th century A.D. This image was encountered from Maruthoor Kulangara near Karunagappally is now in better state of protection. Located at Karthikapally Taluk in Alappuzha district.

BUDDHA IMAGE AT MAVELIKKARA

This Buddha Image is about 3 feet height including the pedestal upon which it is seated. It has the jvala, usnisha and the upper cloth over the chest to indicate its Buddhist character. The sculpture as exhibited highly skilled crafts - manship in depicting the characteristic ornamentations. The jvala is prominent. The image is in the yogasana posture.It is datable to the 9th century A.D. Located at Mavelikkara village in Alappuzha district.

BUDDHA IMAGE AT KARUMADI

This image of Buddha is popularly known as Karumadikkuttan. It is made of black stone. Its left hand is broken and lost. Several stories are told in the area that are associated with the intallation of the iamge in the site. The usnisha, javala, and traces of the upper cloth passing over the chest indicates that it is a Budha Image. It is about 3ft. high and is in the yogasana posture. It is datable to 8th century A.D. It was declared as protected monument in 1965, with 10 cents of land around it. Situated at Ambalappuzha Taluk in Alappuzha district.

BUDDHA IMAGE AT BHARANIKAVU

This Buddha Image is executed very elegantly; the upper cloth, particularly the many folded part of it passing over the left shoulder and lying flat on the chest. The usnisha and jvala are prominent. It is in yogasana posture. Now the image is inside the compound of Bharanikavu Badrakali Temple. It was declared as protected monument by Travancore Government in 1941 and is located at Kattanam village in Alappuzha district.

KRISHNAPURAM PALACE

This palace is the best example for the Kerala style architectural buildings, especially the residence of local Chief-tains and royal palaces of Travancore. Its gabled roof, narrow stair - cases, dormer windows, classical impluva, heavy doors, narrow corridors etc. are worth to be mentioned. It carries one of the largest mural paintings of the the 18th century school in Kerala, covering an area of 150 sq.ft. An archaeological museum is also accommodated inside the palace. The palace and the surrounding area is declared as protected . Location: Karthikappally Taluk in Alappuzha district.

q Location : Perumkadavila village in Neyyyattinkara Taluk

KOIKKAL KOTTARAM


The ancient palace at Nedumangad is famous in history as the residence of the Perakom Collateral branch of the ancient Venad Dynasty. This palace shows the general architectural characteristics of a typical old and influential Kerala house. The gabled roof, the corridors, the nalukettu style and the mainly wooden character of its constrution that are seen in the Koikkal Palace representing the stylistic perfection of the medieval architecture of Southern Kerala.

Now a folklore and Numismatic Museum, the first of its kind in Kerala has been organised here by the Archaeology Department. The rich and varied collection of musical instruments, occupational implements, house hold utensils, models of folk art forms and rare ancient coins etc. displayed here represents the rich cultural heritage of the past.

q Location : Nedumangad Taluk , Thiruvananthapuram District.

BHAGAVATHY TEMPLE VIZHINJAM

This ancient Devi (Sapta matrukkal) temple is in a square plan representative of the Chola Type. The base pillars etc. are in stone. The super structure is in the shape of a dome. It is a simple structure with sanctum sanctorum and ardhamandapa. The temple is dated back to 9th - 10th century A.D. It is the earliest structural temple in Kerala. The temple is situated at Kottukkal village in Thiruvananthapuram district.

MADAVOORPARA ROCK CUT TEMPLE

Rock cut Temples are one of the main styles of Kerala architecture in 7-9 century AD. This cave temple is found at the mid-height of the rock, facing south west. It has an oblong shrine, with rock-cut linga, an ardhamandapa and pillared facade. The left wall of the ardhamondapa carries a Ganapathy figure and the right side there is a figure of the local chieftain. The temple is dated to about 850 A.D. Located at Iroopara village in Thiruvananthapuram district.

AYYIPILLA ASAN & AYYINIPILLA ASAN SMARAKOM

Ayyipilla Asan is the author of Ramakadha pattu, one of the epic of ancient Malayalam Poetry and Ayyinipilla Asan, his brothr is thee author of Mavarathapattu, another book in ancient Malayalam. Considering the cultural and historical impotance, a small edifice for the family deity of the celebrated ancient poets of Kerala is declared as protected monument in 1987. It is a small shrine with an extension. No particular idol in the sreekoil. Located at Vizhinjam village in Thiruvananthapuram District.

NEERAMONKARA TEMPLE

This Siva temple belongs to teh 14th Century A.D. It is in circular Dravida style raised on a circular paved disc which forms the outer path of Circumambulaion. The temple is a sandhara Prasada; it has aninner covered ambulatory in addition to the one in the open. This lies behind the circular wall. Steps lead upt to it. The inner wall of this inner ambulatory is square; it is the wall of the prasada proper. It is surmounted by an octagonal dome. The central shrine containing a linga is buildt of laterite, and between it and the circular prakara wall there are pillars, two on each side of the four sides. The temple is situated at Nemom village in Thiruvananthapuram District.

VISHNU TEMPLE ARUVIKARA

The temple is of circular vimana with granite adhistana and plastered wall. The whole structure is recently renovated. Considering its structural peculiarity the temple is declared as a protected monument from 28-9-1966 onwards. Location : Maranallur taluk in Thiruvananthapuram District.

THRIVIKRAMANGALAM TEMPLE

This Mahavishnu temple is famous for its sculptural extravagance. The temple appears to be very old. Certain sculptures in front of the temple depict chola features of 11th and 12th centurie. The figures of Dwarapalakas, Singers and Mridangists and the exquisite dance posses on the balustrade to the lateral steps leading to the sanctum sanctorum aree worth to be mentioned. Considering the artistic and cultural importance the temple with 47 cents of land was declared as protected monument in 1965. Located at Thirumala village in Thiruvananthapuram District.

THIRUVANANTHAPURAM FORT

The Thiruvananthapuram Fort is built around Sree Padmanabha Swami Temple which was the centre of many historical events. Even though the work was started in 1747, during the reign of Marthandavarma Maharaja, the Fort was completed by Karthika Thirunal Dharma Raja in 1787 A.D. The height of the Fort is about 15 ft. It was built in accordance with the plan of Thaikkad Vishnuthrathan Namboothiri, a famous architect of that period. The Fort has four main gaeways viz. Kizhakke kotta (East Fort), Padinjare Kotta (West Fort), Thekke kotta (South Fort) and Vadakke kotta (North Fort). In addition to these there are gateways at Sreevaraham, Sree Kandeswaram and Vettimuricha Kotta at the south east side for the convenience of people.

Considering the stuctural and historical value, in 1985 the Fort and Fort gates were declared as protected monuments by the Department of Archaeology. Located in Thiruvananthapuram District.

THIRUNARAYANAPURAM TEMPLE

A structural temple of 14th century A.D. Adhistana and wall are of granite. Square vimana, tritala type of super structure, cloister namaskara mandapa etc. are the main features of the temple. It is a sikara type having a combination of the early Vijayanagara style of architecture with local forms and features. The pranala is set on the kumuda in the kantha which is of the main land type. It is sandhara type temple. The carvings especially of the namaskaramandapa shows the characteristic early Vijayanagara style. The temple is situated at Ottoor village in Thiruvananthapuram District.

KOTTAYAM

PUNDAREEKAPURAM DEVASWAM

The temple is of chathurasra vimana having sheet roof. Square arthamandapa has beautiful carvings on the ceiling. Dwarapalakas present. Main deity is Vishnu with Sathyabhama seated on Garuda. Beautiful murals are seen on the lime plasted granite walls of the garbhagriha. The temple and the murals are dated to the 17th to 18th century A.D and is situated at Vadayar village in Kottayyam Taluk.

IDUKKI

MANGALADEVI TEMPLE

The temple complex on the top of the Magaladevi Hills facing the Cumbam Valley of Tamilnadu consists of four shrines of different sizes and orientation confined to a well defined Prakara with a fairly large sized Gopuradwara. Among the four temple precincts one is large facing east with a covered GarbhaGriha, Ardhamandapa and an open courtyard. There is a sub-shrine with the trunk of an image, the naval of which appears to be that of a female in Ardha-Paryanka pose. The image is made of soft granite. There are other two sub shrine also in the complex; it is datable to 8-9 century A.D.

Considering the historic and Architectural value, the Department of Archaeology declared it as a protected monument in 1983. Located at Kumili village in Idukki District.

EZHUTHUPARA

.Ezhuthupara at Marayoor is noted for the collection of Pre-historic cave paintings. Pictures in this megalithic art gallery are drawn in two different media consisting of reddish brown soil containing multicoloured iron minerals and white clay soil. similar paintings have not been discovered any where else in Kerala. Location : Devikulam Taluk in Idukki district. ERNAKULAM

KALLIL ROCK CUT TEMPLE

The unique rock cut temple at Kallil near Perumbavoor in Ernakulam district which may be assigned to the peiod after 800 A.D. was originally a Jain shrine. But during the period of th decline of Jainism, it got itself transformed into a Hindu temple dedicated to Bhagavathi which it still is. One of the facade of this rock shelter is carved an unfinished seated image of Mahavira, represented also on the back wall of cavern.
PAZHOOR PERUMTHRIKKOVIL

It is sandhara type temple with cardinal doors on Four sides. The plinth and the wall together are of granite stone work and the rest of timber and sheet roof in circulr vimana. Dwarapalakas are made of wood. Main deity sivalinga is facing east. Square ardhamandapa contains beautiful wooden carvings on the ceiling. Pranala is a typical ornate Keral type with standing yaksha bearing at its tip. It has some of the notable examples of old workman ship in wood, illustrating various puranic scenes and figures from Bhagavata, Ramayana and Mahabharata. The temple can be dated to 12th century AD. Location: Muvattupuzha Taluk in Eranakulam district.
PALLIPPURAM FORT

This hexagonal building is the oldest extant European monument in India. It was constructed by the Portuguese in 1503. It is popularly known as Ayakkotta or Alikkotta. In 1663 the Portuguese surrendered it to the Dutch. About 1789, through the strategic diplomacy of Raja Kesava Dasan, the able Devan of the Raja of Travancore, the Fort was purchased by the Travancore from the Dutch. Location: Pallipuram village in Kochi Taluk.

OORAMANA TEMPLE

This structural temple can be datable to 12-13thh century A.D. It is of circular vimana with granite stone plinth with plastered walls bearing beautiful mural paintings. They include various puranic scenes like Gajendra moksha, Sivathandava, Sastha on hunting, Sreerama Pattabhisheka, the war between Rama & Ravana etc. Main deity is Narasimha moorthy facing east. pranala of the ornate medieval type. Dwarapalakas are painted on the wall. Square ardha mandapa carries beautiful carvings on the wooden ceiling.

The temple is situated at Melmuri village in Ernakulam district.

STONE INSCRIPTION (HEBREW)

This inscription is seen in front of the Jews synagogue at Chennamangalam. The Hebrew stone inscription having eight lines shows that the synagogue was built in 1615 and the expenditure was met by David Gastiline, one of the leader of the Jews. It was declared as protected monument in 1966 and is located at North Paravoor taluk in Eranakulam district.

STONE INSCRIPTIONS, CHENNAMANGALAM

Stone inscription lying in the church compound of

Vaipikkotta seminary, Chennamangalam.

ARIYITTU VAZHCHA KOVILAKOM

A traditional style Nalukettu which was used for the Ariyittu Vazhcha, a ceremony in connection with the coronation of the new heir of Cochin Royal family. The old building in fornt of the Palliyarakavu Bhagavathy temple stands as protected monument . Location: Mattancheri village in Cochin Taluk Ernakulam district.
SIVANARAYANA TEMPLE THIRUNAYATHODE

This strutural temple is of Vritta Vimana. Granite stone for adhistana and wall. Granite wall is coated with plaster on which murals are seen. Sandhara type. Dwarapalakas in stone work are seen on all the four sides. unified copper roofing for the whole temple, Unitary type without any subsidiary shrines. Pranala set in the Kantha and supported by a gana figure. main deity is Sivalingga in front of which is fixed the figures of Siva and Vishnu in the same 'Pitha'. the concept is not of Sankara Narayana but of Siva and Vishnu in separate entity having equal importance. The square ardhamandapa poses carvings of Navagraha on the ceiling. This temple can be datable to the 11th - 12th century AD. Located at Angamali village in Ernakulam district.

MANJAPRA TEMPLE

It is a temple of square Sikhara type. The roof and all parts of the Sreekovil is made of granite rock. Dwarapalakas are of granite. Ghanadwaras on three sides. The main diety is vishnu in 'varadamudra'. This figure is dated to about 9-10 century A.D. Idols of Ganapathy, Bhadrakali, Sastha, nagar are also seen here. This type of temple is very rare in Kerala. Location: Manjapra village in Aluva Taluk.

ULIYANUR MAHADEVA TEMPLE

This structural temple is in the form of vritha vimana with granite adhisthana. A unified tiled roof for the whole temple. Sandhara type with four cardinal openings with wooden doors, square namaskara mandapa with a granite Nandi inside. Balipitha outside the Chuttambalam. Balustrades are of peculiar type. pranala is of unusual pattern with a bull head at the tip and supported by an Yakshi figure. Main deity is Sivalinga facing east. The temple is datable to 12th Century AD.

Considering the structural importance, the ancient temple was declared as protected monument by the Department of Archaeology in 1998. Location: North Paravoor Taluk in Ernakulam District.

OLD KACHERI MALIKA

U.C. COLLEGE, ALUVA

The old Kacheri Malika is a beautiful building in which the Alangad Taluk Kacheri functioned under the Travancore Kingdom. It is built in a blended style of Indo-European architecture. From 1922 onwards the Union Christian College has been functioning in this building. Location: Aluva Taluk in Ernakulam district.
KOTTAYIL KOVILAKOM

This is a centre of historical importance. The word Kottayil Kovilakom means the palace inside the fort. It is the place where the Royal palace of the Villar Vattathu Raja, who ruled over the area of Chennamangalam and adjacent coastal areas, was situated. The remains around the old well is declared as protected site in 1936. A Vishnu temple and the remainsof the Vaipikotta seminary are seen near by this protected site. The Kovilakam is in North Paravoor Taluk.

VAIPIKOTTA SEMINARY

Vaipikotta seminary was built by the Portuguese in 1577. Many Vattezhuthu inscriptions were encountered during the exploration done here in 1935. The potteries collected from the nearby areas of the church are exhibited in the Archaeological Museum Thrissur. The seminary with 50 cents of land was declared as protected . Location: Chennamangalam village in North Paravoor Taluk.

THRISUR

SAKTHAN THAMPURAN PALACE

The old Vadakkechira palace, was renovated to the present style by Sakthan Thampuran, the famous king of the Perumbadappu dynasty. Now it is known as Sakthan Thampuran palace. It is a two storied building with a Nalukettu. The palace is an exquisite example for the combination of Kerala-Dutch architectural Style. Thick walls, tall ceiling, floor with beautiful Itlian marble tiles and spacious rooms are the pecularities of this building. Now it is a protected monument under the Department of Archaeology. The palace is in Thrissur Taluk.

TIPPU'S FLAG STAFF

The flag staff of Tippusulthan which was erected in 1789 is now protected in front of the Sakthanthampuran palace near the fort wall.

WESTERN GATE WAY OF SAKTHAN THAMPURAM PALACE

EASTERN GATEWAY OF SAKTHAN THAMPURAN PALACE

OLD FORTIFICATION

The eastern and western gateway and old fortification around the Sakthan Thampuran Palace is also a protectd monuments due to its stylistic importance.

TWO IMAGES

Two stone images of Nagaraja and Nagayakshi under the Saptaparna tree in Vadakkechira palace (Sakthan Thampuran Palace) compound are protected by the Department.

TOMB OF ZAMORIN

A monument put up at the Vadakkechira palace compound where Zamorin Raja of Calicut was cremated in 1748.

TOMB OF SAKTHAN THAMPURAN

A monument put up at the same site where Raja Ramavarma alias Sakthan Thampuran was

cremated in 1805.

TOMB OF RAMAVARMA RAJA
A monument put up at the palace site where Ramavarma Raja of Cochin was cremated.
ANCIENT HOUSE OF ARNOSE PADIRI

AND

ST. FRANCIS XAVIER FORANE CHURCH
Rev. Joannes Ernesto Hanxleden SJ was one of the most remarkable scholar missionaries who dedicated their lives to enrich Malayalam literature with their immortal contributions. The German priest, Father Hanxley - den (Arnose Padiri) reached Kerala in 1700.AD. During the thirty years of his life in Kerala he provided Malayalam with a varied and rich flair. Important among them includes Puthen Pana, Umma Parvam, and Malayalam Sanskrit dictionary. His Varthamana Pusthakam is written in chaste prose and is a work of great literary merit. He was a pioneer prose writer in Malayalam. Arnose Padiri built a residence for himself, 113 feet towards the west of the St. Francis Xavier Forance in Veloor. It is a rctangular two storied building resembling the pilgrim halls of Hindu temples. The upper storey of the building is supported by nine pillars made of solid rocks and five laterite stones.
The church of St. Francis Xavier Forance was constructed by Arnose Padiri in 1724. It is a beautiful monument of Indo European style. The roof is made in Kerala style with wood and is supported by fine huge wooden beams. The ancient altar and the beautiful murals on the arch surface above it add attraction to the church. The balcony at the back of the main hall of the church having an area of 27 sq mts. is supported by wooden elephants.

Considering their historical importance, the ancient house of Arnose Padiri and the church of St. Francis Xavier were declared as protected monument in 1995 by the stat Archaeology Department. Located in Talappally Taluk, Thrissur

TRIKKUR MAHADEVA TEMPLE

This live rock cut temple is dated to the 8th century A.D. The Sivalinga faces east and the door of the Garbhagriha is on the north. There is a Ganapathi sculpture on the eastern wall. The arrangement of dwarapalakas and other deities are slightly disturbed to suit the terrain of the rock in which the temple and the figures have been carved. The linga is in the centre, fixed on to a rectangular pedestal. There is an evergreen pond on the top of the rock. The Temple is situated at Mukundapuram Taluk in Trissur district.

VATTEZHUTHU INSCRIPTIONS

A granite slab with Vattezhuthu inscriptions on it. Measuring 6 ft by 4.5 feet. Now in the compound of the Thazhekkad church.

A granite slab with a three line inscription in vattezhuthu measuring about 1 feet by 3/4 feet lying in front of the Sreekovil of the Thazhekkad Siva Temple. Located in Mukundapuram Taluk Thrissur.

MENHIR

A megalithic monument (Menhir type) in granite having 15 feet height and 12 feet 4 inches broad standing opposite Anappara on the left side of the Viyyur - Thanikudam Road. Location : Mukundapuram Taluk in Thrissur District.

MONOLITHIC MONUMENT

Monolithic monument (Menhir type) one in standing posture having 12 feet 3 inches height and 10 feet 6 inches broad. One in laying posture having 6 feet length and 5 feet broad. Both are now inside the khadi and village industries compound at Kuttoor village in Thrissur Taluk.

PORKALAM DOLMANS

Three dolmans already excavated by the Department. Contents including prehistoric potteries and iron implements were taken to Thrissur Archaeological Museum. The three dolmans with 5 cents of land located in THalappaally Taluk, Thrissur.

KOTTAPPURAM FORT

The Kottappuram fort or Cranganoor Fort was built by the Portuguese in 1523 AD. Later it was captured and destroyed by the Dutch in 1662. The remains of the Fort is protected by the Department of Archaeology due to its historical importance. The remaining part of the original fort wall shows that it was built by laterite and was 18 feet in thickness. Location: Kodungalloor Taluk in Thrissur district.

ARIYANNOOR TEMPLE

This temple can be dated to 14th century A.D. The main deity Hari Kanyaka (Mohini concept) is facing East. The temple has a granite adhisthana with laterite but ornate wall. The murals and sculptures around Garbhagriha are almost deteriorated. The temple with its walls, ruined gopurams, two stories shrine and broken idol along with its constituent portion including the two dwarapalakas and the wooden images attached to Namaskara Mandapam are declared as protected under the purview of the protected monuments Act by the Department of Archaeology in 1936. Location: Talapally Taluk in Thrissur district.

NEDUMKOTTA OR TRAVANCORE LINES

The Travancore lines or Nedumkotta as it was called, ran from the Vaipin Island to the Western Ghats and often through Cochin territory. It was mainly a ditch 16 feet broad, 20 feet deep and 56 km long with a bamboo barricade by its side, protected by ramparts and bastions at strategic points. It was bilt during the reign of Marthanda Varma; Dalawa Marthanda Pillai took up the work and captain D' Lannoy personally supervised the constructions. Nedumkotta was destroyed in 1790 during the attack of Tippu Sulthan. A portion of the ruined fort is protected at Palamuri and Kottavathil in Thrissur District.

CHERAMAN PARAMBU

The Cheraman Parambu has an area of three acres. It is believed to have the seat of the palace of Cheraman Perumal. The trial digs conducted in the area has revealed the existence of a number of Chinese shreds along with local potteries. Considering the historical importance, the site is declared as protected .

Location: Kodungalloor Taluk in Thrissur district.

IRUNILAKODE TEMPLE

This is one of the few rock cut temples in Kerala with a central figure on the wall of the cell, datable to the 8th-9th centuries A.D. The main deity is Dakshinamoorthy in sitting posture with his left leg placed over the other, with serpents coiling round the body and with an Akshamala, Keyoora and Khadaka on the two upper hands. The linga on the side is believed by the local people as growing in size every day. The Temple is situated at Talappally Taluk in Thrissur district.

KIZHTHALI TEMPLE

This is one of the Eighteen Thali temples in Kerala datable to early 13th-14th century AD. It is dedicated to Siva. The old temple is in ruins and a new structure in its place has been put up. The area is marked by the presence of several broken and damaged idols of gods and goddesses and some of them had been removed to museums. The idol in the structure probably represents the one in the original temple. Located at Methala village in Kodungalloor Taluk.

PALAKKAD

KATTILMADAM

It is a monument dated to 12th - 13th centuries A.D. This beautiful granite structure which is known as Kattilmadam is in Dravida style with octagonal Griva and Sikhara. Its unique structure having ornated Sthambha pada, peculiar pranala, huge granite pieces used for making the wall and the rood etc. make it worthy to be protected. Location: Ottappalam Taluk in Palakkad district.

MALAPPURAM

SREE VENKITATHEVAR TEMPLE

This Siva temple is ornated with the beautiful murals on the walls of the garbhagriha and mgnificent wood carvings on the griva. The temple itself is a speciment of indigenous style of temple architecture of 19th century. The 'Garbhagriha' and 'Mukhamandapa' are square in form. Dwithala vimana with sheeted roof. Dwarapalaka figures are of wood. Pranala with support at the tip.

The writings on the wall of the Garbhagriha shows that the murals were completed in 1053 M.E. The temple is located at Eranad Taluk in Malappuram district.

KOZHIKODE

MONUMENTS INDICATING THE FIRST

ARRIVAL OF VASCO-DE-GAMA

Vasco-de-Gama landed at Kappad a few miles North of Kozhikkode on 27th May 1948. It was an event which was destined to write the name of Kerala in the annals of world history. A monument was erected there to indicate the historical event.
KOTTAKAL KUJALIMARAKKAR'S HOUSE
The house stated to be the residence of the Kottakal Kunjalimarakkar, one of the heroes of Kerala history, is an ordinary single storied building (new) built in laterite stones and with thatched roof. It is situated in a garden land measuring 19 cents. The old house must have been destroyed by the Portuguese in the 16th century. The wood works of the existing house are very strong and substantial. They would suggest that they formed part of same old house built previously.

Location: Quilandi taluk in Kozhikode district.

TIPPU SULTAN'S FORT

In 1788 Tippu Sultan transferred the capital of the Province of Malabar from Kozhikode to the South bank of Beypore River and built a Fort at the modern village of Feroke. But Tippu's grand project of founding a new capital was ended in failure because he was compelled to retire to Coimbatore due to the appraoch of monsoon. Considering the historical importance, a part of the laterite fort remaining at Paramukku, Kottasthala is declared as Protected Monument by the Department of Archaeology in 1991 The Fort is in Kozhikode Taluk.

kalpathoor paradevatha TEMPLE

Main deity of this temples is Kirathamoorthy facing west. the ancient templeis having granite adhistana with laterite wall. Dwarapalakas are of wood. Pranala is usual ornate type with a gana support on its tip. The ceiling of the 'Mukhamandapa' and the 'Balikalpura' have beautiful wooden carvings. Almost dilapidated eastern padippura carries splendid carvings of miniature figures on its ceiling, depicting different puranci scenes like 'Sree Rama Pattabhishekam', 'Anantha sayanam', 'Siva Parvathi Parinayam' etc. The temple can be dated to 14th centruy A.D.

Location: Quilandi taluk in Kozhikode district.

  WAYANAD

TOM OF VEERA PAZHASSI

The tomb of the celebrated historical giant and reputed warrior Veera Pazhassi is a historical monument that has laid his great memories on the sands of time. It is a protected monument under the Department. A small site museum is also functioning here. Location: Manarthavadi Taluk in Wayanad district.

Pazhassi Raja: Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja belonged to Kottayam Royal Family. He revolted againt the British revenue policy by organising the tribals like Kurichiyas and Kurumbas of Wayanad. His strong guerilla warfare could successfully resist the wicked British forces several times. He succeeded in winning the full support of his people in this long war with the foreign power. At last to the ingratitude of someof his fellowmen, the 'Lion of Kerala' had to surrender. But before being captured byt he British he is said to have committed suicide on 30th November 1805. The dead bdy of the great patriot was brought at Mananthavadi in the leadership of T.H. Baber the then sub collector of Malabar and buried there with all respect.

CAVE AT EDAKKAL

Ambukuthimala or Edakkalmala is one of the principal hills of the Wayanad District. Edakkal cave is found on its Western slope. The cave contains carved figures, some inscription and symbols on the walls. The carvings clearly represent human and animal figures. Human figures with peculiar head dress and swasthika in various forms are distinctly carved. Specimen of circular 'Sun Symbols' and some magic squares are seen engraved on the walls of the cave. It is believed to be the ancient human shelters of 5000 B.C. Located at Sulthan Beteri Taluk in Wayanad district.

The cave and 50 cents of land is taken over by the Department and declared as Protected

Monument on 4-7-1985. KANNUR

THODEEKKULAM SIVA TEMPLE

Thodeekulam Siva Temple is famous for its murals which seems to belong to the middle stage of Kerala mural tradition perhaps of the 10th - 13th century A.D. The wall of the Garbhagriha is of laterite with plaster coating on which mural scenes are painted. The temple is of Chathurasra Vimana, dwithala with copper roof. No dwarapalakas. Main deity is Sivalinga facing East Pranala is long and rather simple shaft channel set mildly carved at the tip. In front of the square 'Namaskara Mandapa' is a granite Nandi. Balipeeta is in the open. The temple issituated at Thalasseri taluk in Kannur district.

EZHIMALA FORT AT ETTIKULAM

The Ezhimala fort or Ettikulam Fort lies about 2 km. South of Mount De-eli or Ezhimala. The fort was built by the Portuguese and subsequently held by the French and the English. It consists of three hexagonal prismatic structures, one of which has been completely damaged. the side walls of the fort are of various lengths and are almost ruined.

Ezhimala, may be a variation of 'Azhimala', which meant "The mount near the Sea" was the seat of powerful kingdom which comprised the whole of the present districts from Wayanad to Kasargod and produced the great warrior king Nannan in the 5th century. In the later days Ezhimala was the capital of Mooshika and Kolathiri Rajas. Location: Thalipparambu taluk in Kannur district. KASARGOD

POYILKOTTA

This laterite fort was believed to be built by the Bednore Naikans in the 17th century A.D. The Fort is in complete decay. The remains show that the original Fort was eight feet in thickness and more than fifteen feet in height. Inside the Fort there is a temple, and a big pond with steps. Considering the historical importance, the fort with an area of 8.44 acres of land is already declared as protected monument in 1985 and is situvated at Muliar village in Kasargod Taluk.
CHANDRAGIRI FORT

This ancient fort is made of hard laterite stones. It was built by the Sivappa Nayaka of Bednore in the 17th centuryA.D, who established his authority over the area and built a chain of forts. The Chandragiri river on which it rises marked the traditional boundary between Kerala and Thuluva kingdom. the two sides of the fort are facing the sea. There are eight view towers with peeranky holes from which Uhe sea route can be guarded closely. the main watch tower is facing north. On the eastern and western side there are two underground passages. A deep well and a pond with flight of steps are there inside the fort. The Fort with an area of 7.76 acres is located at Kalnad village in Kasargod Taluk.
PILICODE CAVE

It is a megalithic site having an area of 3 acres 28 cents. A number of rock cut tombs encountered in this laterite zone are of archaeological value.
The cave is at Hosdurg taluk in Kasargod district.

 

LIST OF MUSEUMS UNDER THE KERALAARCHAEOLOGY DEPARTMENT

1. Padmanabhapuram palace museum Thuckalai, Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu.

2. Folklore museum at Koikkal Palace
Nedumangadu, Thiruvananthapuram District.

3. Kottarakkara Thampuran Memmorial Museum
for Classical Arts, Kottarakkara, Kollam District.

4. Krishnapuram Palace Museum
Kayamkulam, Alappuzha District.

5. Hillpalace Museum
Thrippunithura, Ernakulam District.

6. Archaeological Museum
Kollangodu House, Thrissur.

7. Pazhassi Raja Museum
East Hill, Kozhikode.